ORS 243.650¹
Definitions for ORS 243.650 to 243.782

As used in ORS 243.650 (Definitions for ORS 243.650 to 243.782) to 243.782 (Representation by counsel authorized), unless the context requires otherwise:

(1) "Appropriate bargaining unit" means the unit designated by the Employment Relations Board or voluntarily recognized by the public employer to be appropriate for collective bargaining. However, an appropriate bargaining unit may not include both academically licensed and unlicensed or nonacademically licensed school employees. Academically licensed units may include but are not limited to teachers, nurses, counselors, therapists, psychologists, child development specialists and similar positions. This limitation does not apply to any bargaining unit certified or recognized prior to June 6, 1995, or to any school district with fewer than 50 employees.

(2) "Board" means the Employment Relations Board.

(3) "Certification" means official recognition by the board that a labor organization is the exclusive representative for all of the employees in the appropriate bargaining unit.

(4) "Collective bargaining" means the performance of the mutual obligation of a public employer and the representative of its employees to meet at reasonable times and confer in good faith with respect to employment relations for the purpose of negotiations concerning mandatory subjects of bargaining, to meet and confer in good faith in accordance with law with respect to any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of a collective bargaining agreement, and to execute written contracts incorporating agreements that have been reached on behalf of the public employer and the employees in the bargaining unit covered by such negotiations. The obligation to meet and negotiate does not compel either party to agree to a proposal or require the making of a concession. This subsection may not be construed to prohibit a public employer and a certified or recognized representative of its employees from discussing or executing written agreements regarding matters other than mandatory subjects of bargaining that are not prohibited by law as long as there is mutual agreement of the parties to discuss these matters, which are permissive subjects of bargaining.

(5) "Compulsory arbitration" means the procedure whereby parties involved in a labor dispute are required by law to submit their differences to a third party for a final and binding decision.

(6) "Confidential employee" means one who assists and acts in a confidential capacity to a person who formulates, determines and effectuates management policies in the area of collective bargaining.

(7)(a) "Employment relations" includes, but is not limited to, matters concerning direct or indirect monetary benefits, hours, vacations, sick leave, grievance procedures and other conditions of employment.

(b) "Employment relations" does not include subjects determined to be permissive, nonmandatory subjects of bargaining by the Employment Relations Board prior to June 6, 1995.

(c) After June 6, 1995, "employment relations" does not include subjects that the Employment Relations Board determines to have a greater impact on management’s prerogative than on employee wages, hours, or other terms and conditions of employment.

(d) "Employment relations" does not include subjects that have an insubstantial or de minimis effect on public employee wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment.

(e) For school district bargaining, "employment relations" excludes class size, the school or educational calendar, standards of performance or criteria for evaluation of teachers, the school curriculum, reasonable dress, grooming and at-work personal conduct requirements respecting smoking, gum chewing and similar matters of personal conduct, the standards and procedures for student discipline, the time between student classes, the selection, agendas and decisions of 21st Century Schools Councils established under ORS 329.704 (Local 21st Century Schools Councils), requirements for expressing milk under ORS 653.077 (Expressing milk in workplace), and any other subject proposed that is permissive under paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this subsection.

(f) For employee bargaining involving employees covered by ORS 243.736 (Strikes by certain emergency and public safety personnel), "employment relations" includes safety issues that have an impact on the on-the-job safety of the employees or staffing levels that have a significant impact on the on-the-job safety of the employees.

(g) For all other employee bargaining except school district bargaining and except as provided in paragraph (f) of this subsection, "employment relations" excludes staffing levels and safety issues (except those staffing levels and safety issues that have a direct and substantial effect on the on-the-job safety of public employees), scheduling of services provided to the public, determination of the minimum qualifications necessary for any position, criteria for evaluation or performance appraisal, assignment of duties, workload when the effect on duties is insubstantial, reasonable dress, grooming, and at-work personal conduct requirements respecting smoking, gum chewing, and similar matters of personal conduct at work, and any other subject proposed that is permissive under paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this subsection.

(8) "Exclusive representative" means the labor organization that, as a result of certification by the board or recognition by the employer, has the right to be the collective bargaining agent of all employees in an appropriate bargaining unit.

(9) "Fact-finding" means identification of the major issues in a particular labor dispute by one or more impartial individuals who review the positions of the parties, resolve factual differences and make recommendations for settlement of the dispute.

(10) "Fair-share agreement" means an agreement between the public employer and the recognized or certified bargaining representative of public employees whereby employees who are not members of the employee organization are required to make an in-lieu-of-dues payment to an employee organization except as provided in ORS 243.666 (Certified or recognized labor organization as exclusive employee group representative). Upon the filing with the board of a petition by 30 percent or more of the employees in an appropriate bargaining unit covered by such union security agreement declaring they desire that the agreement be rescinded, the board shall take a secret ballot of the employees in the unit and certify the results thereof to the recognized or certified bargaining representative and to the public employer. Unless a majority of the votes cast in an election favor the union security agreement, the board shall certify deauthorization of the agreement. A petition for deauthorization of a union security agreement must be filed not more than 90 calendar days after the collective bargaining agreement is executed. Only one such election may be conducted in any appropriate bargaining unit during the term of a collective bargaining agreement between a public employer and the recognized or certified bargaining representative.

(11) "Final offer" means the proposed contract language and cost summary submitted to the mediator within seven days of the declaration of impasse.

(12) "Labor dispute" means any controversy concerning employment relations or concerning the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing, or seeking to arrange terms or conditions of employment relations, regardless of whether the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee.

(13) "Labor organization" means any organization that has as one of its purposes representing employees in their employment relations with public employers.

(14) "Last best offer package" means the offer exchanged by parties not less than 14 days prior to the date scheduled for an interest arbitration hearing.

(15) "Legislative body" means the Legislative Assembly, the city council, the county commission and any other board or commission empowered to levy taxes.

(16) "Managerial employee" means an employee of the State of Oregon who possesses authority to formulate and carry out management decisions or who represents management’s interest by taking or effectively recommending discretionary actions that control or implement employer policy, and who has discretion in the performance of these management responsibilities beyond the routine discharge of duties. A "managerial employee" need not act in a supervisory capacity in relation to other employees. Notwithstanding this subsection, "managerial employee" does not include faculty members at a community college, college or university.

(17) "Mediation" means assistance by an impartial third party in reconciling a labor dispute between the public employer and the exclusive representative regarding employment relations.

(18) "Payment-in-lieu-of-dues" means an assessment to defray the cost for services by the exclusive representative in negotiations and contract administration of all persons in an appropriate bargaining unit who are not members of the organization serving as exclusive representative of the employees. The payment must be equivalent to regular union dues and assessments, if any, or must be an amount agreed upon by the public employer and the exclusive representative of the employees.

(19) "Public employee" means an employee of a public employer but does not include elected officials, persons appointed to serve on boards or commissions, incarcerated persons working under section 41, Article I of the Oregon Constitution, or persons who are confidential employees, supervisory employees or managerial employees.

(20) "Public employer" means the State of Oregon, and the following political subdivisions: Cities, counties, community colleges, school districts, special districts, mass transit districts, metropolitan service districts, public service corporations or municipal corporations and public and quasi-public corporations.

(21) "Public employer representative" includes any individual or individuals specifically designated by the public employer to act in its interests in all matters dealing with employee representation, collective bargaining and related issues.

(22) "Strike" means a public employee’s refusal in concerted action with others to report for duty, or his or her willful absence from his or her position, or his or her stoppage of work, or his or her absence in whole or in part from the full, faithful or proper performance of his or her duties of employment, for the purpose of inducing, influencing or coercing a change in the conditions, compensation, rights, privileges or obligations of public employment; however, nothing shall limit or impair the right of any public employee to lawfully express or communicate a complaint or opinion on any matter related to the conditions of employment.

(23) "Supervisory employee" means any individual having authority in the interest of the employer to hire, transfer, suspend, lay off, recall, promote, discharge, assign, reward or discipline other employees, or responsibly to direct them, or to adjust their grievances, or effectively to recommend such action, if in connection therewith, the exercise of the authority is not of a merely routine or clerical nature but requires the use of independent judgment. Failure to assert supervisory status in any Employment Relations Board proceeding or in negotiations for any collective bargaining agreement does not thereafter prevent assertion of supervisory status in any subsequent board proceeding or contract negotiation. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, a nurse, charge nurse or similar nursing position may not be deemed to be supervisory unless that position has traditionally been classified as supervisory.

(24) "Unfair labor practice" means the commission of an act designated an unfair labor practice in ORS 243.672 (Unfair labor practices).

(25) "Voluntary arbitration" means the procedure whereby parties involved in a labor dispute mutually agree to submit their differences to a third party for a final and binding decision. [Formerly 243.711; 1975 c.728 §1; 1978 c.5 §1; 1987 c.792 §1; 1995 c.286 §1; 1999 c.59 §61; 2001 c.104 §75; 2007 c.141 §1a; 2007 c.144 §3]

See also annota­tions under ORS 243.711 in permanent edi­tion.

Notes of Decisions

The selec­tion of a fair-share ratifica­tion pro­ce­dure need only be some pro­ce­dure which reasonably reflects the opinion of the majority of the bargaining unit members. Oregon City Fedn. of Teachers v. Employe Rela­tions Bd., 23 Or App 540, 543 P2d 297 (1975)

A court's review of the Employ­ment Rela­tions Board's decision as to what is a mandatory subject for collective bargaining is limited to determining whether the decision is lawful in substance and is supported by substantial evidence. Springfield Educ. Assn. v. Springfield Sch. Dist. 19, 24 Or App 751, 547 P2d 647 (1976), as modified by 25 Or App 407, 549 P2d 1141 (1976)

Substitute teachers are public employes within defini­tion of this sec­tion. Eugene School District v. Substitute Teacher Organiza­tion, 31 Or App 1255, 572 P2d 650 (1977)

In a pro­ceed­ing before the Employ­ment Rela­tions Board to certify a bargaining unit, an order by the board denying a mo­tion to dismiss such a pro­ceed­ing on the ground that the employer is not a "public employer" and holding that it is, to the contrary, a "public employer," is not a "final order" so as to be ap­pealable under the terms of ORS 183.480 (Judicial review of agency orders). Lane Council of Govern­ments v. Lane Council of Govern­ments Employes Associa­tion, 277 Or 631, 561 P2d 1012 (1977), on reconsidera­tion 278 Or 335, 563 P2d 729 (1977)

Notwithstanding that it was improper for public employer to classify employe as "supervisory employe," and thus place him on list of posi­tions excluded from collective bargaining, without first giving notice to union as re­quired by bargaining agree­ment, employe was not then entitled to disobey order not to attend union meeting, but was re­quired to remain at job and then file grievance under pro­ce­dure provided by bargaining agree­ment. Whitney v. Employ­ment Division, 280 Or 35, 569 P2d 1078 (1977)

Sheriff is "public employer" within meaning of this sec­tion. Hockema v. OSEA, 34 Or App 527, 579 P2d 282 (1978), Sup Ct review denied

Where collective bargaining agree­ment included pro­vi­sion requiring fair share pay­ments-in-lieu-of-dues, and it was intent of parties to agree­ment that vote approving of agree­ment would constitute ratifica­tion of fair share require­ment, sub­se­quent judicial decision mandating separate vote for ratifica­tion of fair share pro­vi­sion was not retroactive and did not require repay­ment of pre­vi­ously withheld fair share pay­ments. Oregon City Federa­tion of Teachers v. OCEA, 36 Or App 27, 584 P2d 303 (1978)

Collective bargaining agree­ment requiring pay­ments of only those nonunion members who had been union members during term of agree­ment but had dropped out of union was not fair share agree­ment within meaning of this sec­tion. Stines v. OSEA, 287 Or 643, 601 P2d 799 (1979)

Although teachers' summer vaca­tion was mandatory bargaining subject, scheduling summer vaca­tion and teachers' "workdays" were permissive bargaining subjects. Eugene Educa­tion Assn. v. Eugene School Dist., 46 Or App 733, 613 P2d 79 (1980)

Determina­tion of whether certain aspects of public schoolteacher evalua­tions were "condi­tions of employ­ment" and therefore employ­ment rela­tions subject to mandatory collective bargaining was properly made by Employ­ment Rela­tions Board in exercise of interpretive rather than legislative authority as statute embodies complete expression of legislative policy not subject to refine­ment by ERB. Springfield Educ. Assn. v. Springfield School Dist., 290 Or 217, 621 P2d 547 (1980)

Firefighters' safety proposal was mandatory subject for bargaining where ERB found safety is of "like character" to statutory examples of employ­ment rela­tions and firefighters proved that preponderant purpose of specific language of proposal was to protect employes. Interna­tional Assoc. of Firefighters, Local 314 v. City of Salem, 68 Or App 793, 684 P2d 605 (1984), Sup Ct review denied

Employ­ment Rela­tions Board has authority to determine propriety of pay­ment-in-lieu-of-dues amount agreed upon by public employer and exclusive representative of employees. Carlson v. AFSCME, 73 Or App 755, 700 P2d 260 (1985), Sup Ct review denied

Prohibi­tion in ORS 260.432 (Solicitation of public employees) against requiring public employee to support po­lit­i­cal cause does not supersede right of exclusive representative of employees to collect pay­ment-in-lieu-of-dues to support po­lit­i­cal posi­tion affecting rights of represented employees. Carlson v. AFSCME, 73 Or App 755, 700 P2d 260 (1985), Sup Ct review denied

When "fair share" pro­vi­sion exempts from its opera­tion certain state agencies, but is otherwise in all respects fair share agree­ment, it is invalid under this sec­tion because it does not require contribu­tion by all nonunion members of bargaining unit. Stevens v. OPEU, 82 Or App 264, 728 P2d 97 (1986), Sup Ct review denied

Because legislature ex­plic­itly included "matters concerning...vaca­tions" within defini­tion of "employ­ment rela­tions" in this sec­tion, Employ­ment Rela­tions Board erred in interpreting "employ­ment rela­tions" to include only those vaca­tion proposals that affect "employ­ment condi­tions" to a greater extent than "manage­ment rights." Portland Fire Fighters Assoc. v. City of Portland, 305 Or 275, 751 P2d 770 (1988)

City of Salem's reserve police of­fi­cer program involved "matters concerning direct or indirect monetary benefits" within meaning of "employ­ment rela­tions." Salem Police Employees Union v. City of Salem, 308 Or 383, 781 P2d 335 (1989)

Collective bargaining agree­ment which re­quired continuing pay­ments to all employees except for those working less than 15 hours per week was "fair share" agree­ment. Bates v. Portland Federa­tion of Teachers, 106 Or App 221, 807 P2d 306 (1991)

Where union collected "fair share" pay­ments from nonunion public employees without complying with safeguards instituted to protect employees' rights of free speech and associa­tion, restitu­tion was appropriate remedy. Elvin v. OPEU, 313 Or 165, 832 P2d 36 (1992)

Employ­ment Rela­tions Board misinterpreted "employ­ment rela­tions" by treating workload as if workload were same as five enumerated items in this sec­tion. Tualatin Valley Bargaining v. Tigard School Dist., 314 Or 274, 840 P2d 657 (1992)

Whether "other condi­tions of employ­ment" includes proposal depends on specific facts of each case. Tualatin Valley Bargaining v. Tigard School Dist., 314 Or 274, 840 P2d 657 (1992)

Determina­tion whether subject has greater impact on manage­ment's prerogative than on wages, hours or other terms is irrelevant for matter specifically listed as being subject of "employ­ment rela­tions." Eugene Police Employees' Associa­tion v. City of Eugene, 157 Or App 341, 972 P2d 1191 (1998), Sup Ct review denied

"Academically licensed" refers to posi­tions requiring academic training and involving pro­vi­sion of direct professional service to students, whether or not requiring formal licensing. Linn-Benton-Lincoln Educa­tion Associa­tion v. Linn-Benton-Lincoln ESD, 163 Or App 558, 989 P2d 25 (1999)

Where change in min­i­mum qualifica­tions necessary for posi­tion has impact on direct or indirect monetary benefits, impact of change in min­i­mum qualifica­tions is subject to mandatory bargaining. Beaverton Police Associa­tion v. City of Beaverton, 194 Or App 531, 95 P3d 1160 (2004)

Atty. Gen. Opinions

Right of a nonlawyer union business agent to represent a member before the Public Employe Rela­tions Board, (1972) Vol 35, p 1088; American Associa­tion of University Professors as a labor organiza­tion, (1972) Vol 35, p 1105; seniority as a related economic issue, (1972) Vol 35, p 1134; Retire­ment benefit credit for unused sick leave, request by school district, (1973) Vol 36, p 665; uniform collective bargaining for state employes in same class of posi­tion, (1978) Vol 38, p 1694; permissible pay­ment which may be re­quired from nonmembers with respect to Fair Share Agree­ments, (1978) Vol 38, p 1855

Law Review Cita­tions

28 WLR 259 (1992); 32 WLR 69, 707 (1996)

See also annota­tions under ORS 243.711 to 243.760 in permanent edi­tion.

Notes of Decisions

Savings clause in chapter 536, Oregon Laws 1973, did not prevent applica­tion of expanded bargaining rights to collective bargaining agree­ment then in force. Redmond Sch. Dist. No. 2J v. Pub. Employe Rela­tions Bd., 19 Or App 212, 527 P2d 143 (1974)

The board had authority to review, sec­tion by sec­tion, a city ordinance governing labor rela­tions between the city and its employes and to hold invalid those pro­vi­sions purporting to govern matters of predominantly state-wide concern and which were in conflict with the 1973 Act. City of Beaverton v. Intl. Assn. of Fire Fighters, 20 Or App 293, 531 P2d 730 (1975), Sup Ct review denied

Board order, defining appropriate bargaining unit and ordering representa­tion elec­tion, was interlocutory in nature and was not "final order" subject to judicial review within meaning of ORS 183.480 (Judicial review of agency orders). City of Hermiston v. Employ­ment Rela­tions Board, 280 Or 291, 570 P2d 663 (1977)

Employ­ment Rela­tions Board's policy of adhering to arbitra­tion decisions in sub­se­quent related pro­ceed­ings advances legislative purpose, and is proper exercise of authority to administer this act. Siegel v. Gresham Grade Teachers Associa­tion, 32 Or App 541, 574 P2d 692 (1978)

Public Employes' Collective Bargaining Law did not bar state agency from using state time and funds to campaign against labor organiza­tion in representa­tion elec­tion. OSEA v. Depart­ment of Commerce, 34 Or App 727, 579 P2d 872 (1978)

Juvenile counselor appointed pursuant to ORS 419.604 did not acquire collective bargaining rights granted by these sec­tions where there was no showing that juvenile court judge had expressly authorized employer representatives to bargain on counselor's behalf concerning terms and condi­tions of his employ­ment. Schmidt v. Jackson County Juv. Dept., 49 Or App 349, 619 P2d 1307 (1980)

Employ­ment Rela­tions Board employed scope of review contrary to Public Employe Rela­tions Act when it reviewed merits of arbitra­tion award rather than only its repugnancy to Public Employe Rela­tions Act. Willamina Ed. Assoc. v. Willamina Sch. Dist. 30J, 50 Or App 195, 623 P2d 658 (1981)

Since Public Employe Collective Bargaining Act is general law addressed primarily to substantive social, economic and other regulatory objectives of this state which do not affect freedom of local community to choose its own po­lit­i­cal form, it does not mandate structural and organiza­tional arrange­ments of local govern­ments contrary to Oregon Constitu­tion, Article XI, sec­tion 2. City of Roseburg v. Roseburg City Firefighters, 292 Or 266, 639 P2d 90 (1981)

State's decision to enact Public Employe Collective Bargaining Act supersedes city's power to allow its voters to arbitrate unresolved labor disputes and grant of power by Oregon Constitu­tion, Article IV, sec­tion 1 to legislate by popular vote does not affect state's power in this area. City of Roseburg v. Roseburg City Firefighters, 292 Or 266, 639 P2d 90 (1981)

Arbitrator's failure to conclude that school district violated collective bargaining agree­ment by violating statutory require­ments incorporated into agree­ment was not sufficiently egregious to be reversible as being "repugnant" to act. Eugene Educ. Assoc. v. Eugene School Dist 4J, 58 Or App 140, 648 P2d 60 (1982)

Employ­ment Rela­tions Board formula­tion of test for review of arbitra­tion awards in en­force­­ment pro­ceed­ings which would permit en­force­­ment of arbitrator's award unless (1) parties did not, in a written contract, agree to accept such an award as final and binding or (2) en­force­­ment of the award would be contrary to public policy, was consistent with policies of Public Employe Collective Bargaining Act. Willamina Sch. Dist. 30J v. Willamina Ed. Assn., 60 Or App 629, 655 P2d 189 (1982)

Public Employe Collective Bargaining Act require­ment that juvenile court judge bargain in good faith with representatives of juvenile counselors and refrain from es­tab­lishing terms and condi­tions of counselors' employ­ment in viola­tion of applicable contractual pro­vi­sions did not constitute an undue burden or in­ter­fer­ence with his judicial func­tions under ORS 419.604 or the separa­tion of powers pro­vi­sion contained in Article III, Sec­tion 1 of the Oregon Constitu­tion. Circuit Court v. AFSCME, 61 Or App 311, 657 P2d 1237 (1983), aff'd 295 Or 542, 669 P2d 314 (1983)

Public Employe Collective Bargaining Act applies to the Judicial Depart­ment and is not inconsistent with ORS 1.002 (Supreme Court) or 1.008 (Personnel plan, fiscal plan and property plan). Lent v. ERB, 63 Or App 400, 664 P2d 1110 (1983), Sup Ct review denied

Employ­ment Rela­tions Board did not exceed statutory authority under Public Employes Collective Bargaining Act in designating appropriate bargaining unit which consists of police dispatchers who are employes who can strike and police of­fi­cers who are forbidden from striking. City of Canby v. Canby Police Associa­tion, 68 Or App 317, 680 P2d 1033 (1984), Sup Ct review denied

Statutory purpose to provide uniform basis for employe organizing and bargaining would be subverted by holding that statute authorizing county civil service system supersedes collective bargaining re­quired by this Act. AFSCME v. Clackamas County, 69 Or App 488, 687 P2d 1102 (1984)

Board had authority to order restitu­tion where union collected "fair share" pay­ments from nonunion public employees without complying with safeguards instituted to protect employees' rights of free speech and associa­tion. Elvin v. OPEU, 313 Or 165, 832 P2d 36 (1992)

Atty. Gen. Opinions

School law on media­tion as an exclusive pro­ce­dure, (1971) Vol 35, p 961; seniority as a related economic issue, (1972) Vol 35, p 1134; legality of binding arbitra­tion in public employ­ment collective bargaining, (1972) Vol 36, p 18; validity of collective bargaining agree­ments between county intermediate educa­tion district and local educa­tion associa­tion on transfer of sick leave, (1975) Vol 37, p 328; authority of teachers to strike during contract year in absence of collective bargaining agree­ments, and to engage in picketing, (1975) Vol 37, p 732

Law Review Cita­tions

51 OLR 7-69 (1971); 54 OLR 337-371 (1975); 56 OLR 457 (1977); 21 WLR 454 (1985); 70 OLR 969 (1991); 28 WLR 259 (1992); 32 WLR 69, 707 (1996)

Chapter 243

Notes of Decisions

Effect of Public Employe Rela­tions Act is to modify authority of Personnel Division so that, while division retains responsibility for es­tab­lishing general job salary grades and classifica­tions, specific salary within each range which is paid to employe in public employe bargaining unit is subject to negotia­tion or arbitra­tion under terms of this chapter. AFSCME v. Executive Dept., 52 Or App 457, 628 P2d 1228 (1981), Sup Ct review denied

Provision of collective bargaining agree­ment giving present employes lateral transfer rights was valid under ORS 240.321 (Collective bargaining) and fact that its imple­menta­tion resulted in male succeeding female employe did not violate state af­firm­a­tive ac­tion statutes. State Executive Dept. v. OPEU, 91 Or App 124, 754 P2d 582 (1988)

Atty. Gen. Opinions

State agencies paying carpooling employes' parking fees, (1974) Vol 36, p 1015

Law Review Cita­tions

51 OLR 23, 44 (1971)

1 Legislative Counsel Committee, CHAPTER 243—Public Employee Rights and Benefits, https://­www.­oregonlegislature.­gov/­bills_laws/­Archive/­2007ors243.­pdf (2007) (last ac­cessed Feb. 12, 2009).
2 Legislative Counsel Committee, Annotations to the Oregon Revised Stat­utes, Cumulative Supplement - 2007, Chapter 243, https://­www.­oregonlegislature.­gov/­bills_laws/­ors/­243ano.­htm (2007) (last ac­cessed Feb. 12, 2009).
3 OregonLaws.org assembles these lists by analyzing references between Sections. Each listed item refers back to the current Section in its own text. The result reveals relationships in the code that may not have otherwise been apparent. Currency Information