Association of unit owners
- • powers
- • granting of interest in common elements
- • dispute resolution
(1)(a) An association of unit owners must be organized to serve as a means through which the unit owners may take action with regard to the administration, management and operation of the condominium.
(b) The association of a condominium created on or after September 27, 2007, must be organized:
(A) As a corporation for profit or a nonprofit corporation; or
(B) If the condominium consists of four or fewer units, excluding units used for parking, storage or other use ancillary to a unit, as an unincorporated association, corporation for profit or a nonprofit corporation.
(c) If the association is incorporated:
(A) The name of the association must include the complete name of the condominium.
(B) The articles of incorporation must be consistent with the declaration and bylaws.
(d) For an association described in paragraph (b)(A) of this subsection, the association must be incorporated before conveyance of the first individual unit unless all units in the condominium are conveyed or transferred to one person in one transaction.
(e) Notwithstanding a provision in the declaration or bylaws of a condominium created before September 27, 2007, that states that the association must be unincorporated or that requires approval of owners to incorporate as a nonprofit corporation under ORS chapter 65, an unincorporated association may be incorporated as a nonprofit corporation under ORS chapter 65 if the board of directors adopts a resolution that states the association will be incorporated.
(f) A separate association is not created when an unincorporated association formed under this section is incorporated, reinstated after administrative dissolution under ORS 60.654 (Reinstatement following administrative dissolution) or 65.654 (Reinstatement following administrative dissolution) or again incorporated following dissolution. The association automatically continues and, without any further action by incorporators, directors or officers that may otherwise be required under Oregon corporation laws:
(A) The incorporated association has all of the property, powers and obligations of the association that existed immediately prior to incorporation in addition to the powers and obligations under Oregon corporation laws.
(B) The bylaws in effect immediately prior to incorporation or reinstatement constitute the bylaws of the incorporated association.
(C) The members of the board of directors and the officers continue to serve as directors and officers.
(g) If an incorporated association is at any time dissolved, whether inadvertently or deliberately:
(A) The association continues as an unincorporated association under the same name.
(B) The unincorporated association has all of the property, powers and obligations of the incorporated association existing immediately prior to dissolution.
(C) The unincorporated association is governed by the bylaws, and to the extent applicable, the articles of incorporation of the incorporated association.
(D) The board of directors and the officers serving immediately prior to the dissolution continue to serve as the directors and officers of the unincorporated association.
(2) Membership in the association of unit owners is limited to unit owners.
(3) The affairs of the association are governed by a board of directors as provided for in the bylaws adopted under ORS 100.410 (Adoption of bylaws).
(4) Subject to the provisions of the condominiums declaration and bylaws, and whether or not the association is unincorporated, the association may:
(a) Adopt and amend bylaws and rules and regulations;
(b) Adopt and amend budgets for revenues, expenditures and reserves and levy and collect assessments for common expenses from unit owners;
(c) Hire and terminate managing agents and other employees, agents and independent contractors;
(d) Defend against any claims, proceedings or actions brought against it;
(e) Subject to subsection (11) of this section, initiate or intervene in litigation or administrative proceedings in its own name, and without joining the individual unit owners, in the following:
(A) Matters relating to the collection of assessments and the enforcement of declarations and bylaws;
(B) Matters arising out of contracts to which the association is a party;
(C) Actions seeking equitable or other nonmonetary relief regarding matters that affect the common interests of the unit owners, including but not limited to the abatement of nuisance;
(D) Matters relating to or affecting common elements, including but not limited to actions for damage, destruction, impairment or loss of use of any common element;
(E) Matters relating to or affecting the units or interests of unit owners including but not limited to damage, destruction, impairment or loss of use of a unit or portion thereof, if:
(i) Resulting from a nuisance or a defect in or damage to a common element; or
(ii) Required to facilitate repair to any common element; and
(F) Any other matter to which the association has standing under law or pursuant to the declaration, bylaws or any articles of incorporation;
(f) Make contracts and incur liabilities;
(g) Regulate the use, maintenance, repair, replacement and modification of common elements;
(h) Cause additional improvement to be made as a part of the common elements;
(i) Acquire by purchase, lease, devise, gift or voluntary grant real or personal property or any interest therein and take, hold, possess and convey real or personal property or any interest therein;
(j) Impose and receive any payments, fees or charges for the use, rental or operation of the common elements;
(k) Impose charges for late payments of assessments, attorney fees for collection of assessments and, after giving written notice and an opportunity to be heard, levy reasonable fines for violations of the declaration, bylaws and rules and regulations of the association, provided that the charge imposed or fine levied by the association is based:
(A) On a schedule contained in the declaration or bylaws, or an amendment to either that is delivered to each unit, mailed to the mailing address of each unit or mailed to the mailing addresses designated in writing by the owners; or
(B) On a resolution adopted by the board of directors or the association that is delivered to each unit, mailed to the mailing address of each unit or mailed to the mailing addresses designated by the owners in writing;
(L) Adopt rules regarding the termination of utility services paid for out of assessments of the association and access to and use of recreational and service facilities available to unit owners that must provide for written notice and an opportunity to be heard before the association may terminate the rights of any owners to receive such benefits or services until the correction of any violation covered by the rule has occurred;
(m) Impose reasonable charges for the preparation and recordation of amendments to the declaration or statements of assessments;
(n) Assign its right to future income, including the right to receive common expense assessments;
(o) Provide for the indemnification of its officers and executive board, as may be limited by ORS 61.218 (3)(d) (1987 Replacement Part), and maintain directors and officers liability insurance;
(p) Exercise any other powers conferred by the declaration or bylaws;
(q) Exercise all other powers that may be exercised in this state by any such association; and
(r) Exercise any other powers determined by the association to be necessary and proper for the governance and operation of the association.
(5) Subject to subsection (6) of this section, unless expressly limited or prohibited by the declaration, the association has the authority to grant, execute, acknowledge and deliver on behalf of the unit owners leases, easements, rights of way, licenses and other similar interests affecting the general common elements and consent to vacation of roadways within and adjacent to the condominium.
(6)(a)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, the granting of a lease, easement, right of way, license or other similar interest pursuant to subsection (5) of this section must first be approved by at least 75 percent of owners present at a meeting of the association or with the consent of at least 75 percent of all owners solicited by any means the board of directors determines is reasonable. If a meeting is held to conduct the vote, the meeting notice must include a statement that the approval of the grant will be an item of business on the agenda of the meeting.
(B) Unless the declaration otherwise provides:
(i) The granting of a lease, easement, right of way, license or other similar interest affecting the general common elements for a term of two years or less shall require the approval of a majority of the board of directors.
(ii) The granting of a lease, easement, right of way, license or other similar interest affecting the general common elements for a term of more than two years to a public body, as defined in ORS 174.109 (Public body defined), to a utility, to a communications company or to any other person for installation and maintenance of power, gas, electric, water or other utility and communication lines and services requires the approval of a majority of the board of directors.
(iii) The granting of a lease, easement, license or other similar interest to an owner for the exclusive use of a part of the general common elements to which the owners unit provides primary access requires the approval of a majority of the board of directors. If the approval by the board of directors includes the right of the owner to make improvements to the general common elements to which the owner is being granted exclusive use, ORS 100.535 (Maintenance and improvement of units) applies to the general common elements to the same extent that ORS 100.535 (Maintenance and improvement of units) applies to a unit, including the right of the board under ORS 100.535 (Maintenance and improvement of units) to require an owner, at owners expense, to submit an opinion of a registered architect or registered professional engineer that the proposed improvement will not impair the structural integrity or mechanical systems of the condominium.
(b) Unless the declaration otherwise provides, the consent to vacation of roadways within and adjacent to the condominium must be approved first by at least a majority of unit owners present and voting at a meeting of the association or with consent of at least a majority of all owners solicited by any means the board of directors determines is reasonable. If a meeting is held to conduct the vote, the meeting notice must include a statement that the roadway vacation will be an item of business on the agenda of the meeting.
(7) The instrument granting an interest or consent pursuant to subsection (5) of this section must be executed by the association and acknowledged and shall state that such grant or consent was approved, if appropriate, by at least the percent of owners required under subsection (6) of this section.
(8)(a) Unless expressly prohibited by the declaration, any action permitted under subsections (5) and (6) of this section regarding a general common element may be taken with respect to any limited common element as provided in this subsection.
(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this subsection, the easement, lease or other action under this section requires the approval or consent of the owner of the unit to which the use of the limited common element is reserved and the holder of a first mortgage or first trust deed affecting the unit. However, if the use of the limited common element is reserved for five or more units:
(A) When the action is for more than two years, the owners of 75 percent of the units to which the use of the limited common element is reserved must approve or consent.
(B) When the action is for two years or less, the owners of a majority of the units to which the use of the limited common element is reserved must approve or consent.
(c) The instrument granting an interest or consent under this section must:
(A) Be executed by the association and acknowledged.
(B) State that the grant or consent is given pursuant to this subsection.
(C) Include a certification executed by the association stating that the action was approved by the owners in accordance with this subsection.
(9) Except as otherwise provided in the associations declaration or bylaws, the board of directors of the association may modify, close, remove, eliminate or discontinue the use of a general common element facility or improvement or portion of the common element landscaping, regardless of whether such facility, improvement or landscaping is mentioned in the declaration or shown on the plat provided that:
(a) This subsection does not limit the authority of the board of directors, in its discretion, to seek approval of such modification, closure, removal, elimination or discontinuance by the unit owners; and
(b) Modification, closure, removal, elimination or discontinuance other than on a temporary basis of any swimming pool, spa or recreation or community building must be approved by at least a majority of the unit owners voting on such matter at a meeting or by written ballot held in accordance with the declaration, bylaws or ORS 100.425 (Use of written ballot for approving or rejecting matters subject to meeting of unit owners).
(10)(a) A permit or authorization issued by the board of directors pursuant to authority granted to the board under law, the declaration or the bylaws, may be recorded in the deed records of the county where the condominium is located. An instrument recorded under this subsection must:
(A) Include the name of the condominium and a reference to where the declaration and any applicable supplemental declarations are recorded;
(B) Identify, by the designations stated in the declaration or applicable supplemental declaration, all affected units and common elements;
(C) Include such other information and signatures as may be required by law, under the declaration or bylaws or as the board of directors may desire; and
(D) Be executed by the association and acknowledged.
(b) The board of directors may record an amendment, modification, termination or other instrument relating to the permit or authorization described in this subsection. Any such instrument shall include a reference to the location of the recorded instrument and be executed by the association and acknowledged.
(11)(a) Subject to paragraph (f) of this subsection, before initiating litigation or an administrative proceeding in which the association and an owner have an adversarial relationship, the party that intends to initiate litigation or an administrative proceeding shall offer to use any dispute resolution program available within the county in which the condominium is located that is in substantial compliance with the standards and guidelines adopted under ORS 36.175 (Rules for administration of dispute resolution programs). The written offer must be hand-delivered or mailed by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the address, contained in the records of the association, for the other party.
(b) If the party receiving the offer does not accept the offer within 10 days after receipt by written notice hand-delivered or mailed by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the address, contained in the records of the association, for the other party, the initiating party may commence the litigation or the administrative proceeding. The notice of acceptance of the offer to participate in the program must contain the name, address and telephone number of the body administering the dispute resolution program.
(c) If a qualified dispute resolution program exists within the county in which the condominium is located and an offer to use the program is not made as required under paragraph (a) of this subsection, litigation or an administrative proceeding may be stayed for 30 days upon a motion of the noninitiating party. If the litigation or administrative action is stayed under this paragraph, both parties shall participate in the dispute resolution process.
(d) Unless a stay has been granted under paragraph (c) of this subsection, if the dispute resolution process is not completed within 30 days after receipt of the initial offer, the initiating party may commence litigation or an administrative proceeding without regard to whether the dispute resolution is completed.
(e) Once made, the decision of the court or administrative body arising from litigation or an administrative proceeding may not be set aside on the grounds that an offer to use a dispute resolution program was not made.
(f) The requirements of this subsection do not apply to circumstances in which irreparable harm to a party will occur due to delay or to litigation or an administrative proceeding initiated to collect assessments, other than assessments attributable to fines. [Formerly 94.146; 1997 c.816 §9; 1999 c.677 §47; 2001 c.756 §39; 2003 c.569 §28; 2007 c.410 §11; 2009 c.641 §24; 2011 c.532 §9; 2019 c.69 §31]
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